420 sketches in a range of pencil and ink wash, including some full page illustrations and other smaller studies, all laid into an album on both sides of leaves (some illustrations removed), dating from 1793-1834, contemporary half calf boards reattached to later spine, album measuring 51 x 31cm, showing mainly Scottish scenes, a few manuscript notes accompany illustrations, the vast majority of the sketches appear to be by Sir James Skene, with only five being identified as by others (three by Skene's sons, one by a Mr Thomson, and one by Sir William Rae, a close friend of Skene and Scott)
Provenance: bookplate of James Skene of Rubislaw; the album is thought to have been purchased at auction in the 1950s by the Stevenson lighthouse family (although an acquaintance has been documented between the lighthouse engineer Robert Stevenson and Sir James Skene, suggesting a possible earlier provenance); thence by descent from the Stevenson family
Note: James Skene was born on 7th March 1775 and inherited the estate of Rubislaw at the age of 16, following the untimely death of his brother. Skene was sent to university in Germany and a sketch of his lodgings whilst in Hanau can be seen as one of the earliest sketches in the album.
By profession, Skene was a lawyer, being admitted to the Scottish bar in 1797, however he was also a keen and talented amateur artist. Around the time of his admittance to the bar, Skene formed a close friendship with Sir Walter Scott, with Skene volunteering for Scott's Light Horse Regiment. Amongst his oeuvre, Skene produced A Series of Sketches of the existing Localities alluded to in the Waverley Novels, illustrating Scott's works. Scott valued Skene as a friend, dedicating the fourth canton of Marmion to him in 1808:
Eleven years we now may tell,/ Since we have known each other well;/ Since riding side by side, our hand first drew the voluntary brand;/ and sure, through many a varied scene, unkindness never came between...
Scott then refers to Skene:
The Shepherd, who in summer sun,/ Had something of our envy won, / as thou with pencil and, I with pen,/ The features trace of hill and glen.
Skene also wrote of Scott:
...as Sir Walter's pursuits and my own led us so much in the same course that for a good many years we were seldom separated...and when even in the summer recess, either at Ashestiel or engaged in frequent border excursions...on horseback.
Scott turned to Skene for support when struggling through illness in 1819 and the album appears to contain the sketch then requested by Scott of what was to be his final resting place thirteen years later. Skene recounts Scott’s request in his Memories of Sir Walter Scott:
If you promise not to laugh at me, I have a favour to ask. Do you know I have taken a childish desire to see the place where I am to be laid when I go home, which there is some probability may not now be long delayed. Now, as I cannot go to Dryburgh Abbey …it would give me much pleasure if you would take a ride down, and bring me a drawing of that spot.
Skene adds that Scott "described…the exact spot from which he wished the drawing to be made..’ and that the sketch was afterwards ‘…engraved as a frontispiece to an account of the Family of Halliburton, of which he [Scott] was a descendent by the female line."
This album of Skene's sketches includes at least twenty-eight studies for Skene's etchings in A Series of Sketches of the existing Localities alluded to in the Waverley Novels, a publication encouraged by Scott, and at least four sketches, so far identified, were later used as the basis for other Scott illustrators. These sketches include those of Lagg Castle, Coldingham Priory, Manor Glen and Links of Eyemouth.
The friendship between Skene and Scott seems to have been a creative collaboration and Scott used many of Skene's illustrations as inspiration and aide memoires for his descriptions of landscape and scenery. Scott’s Journal entry of 4 January 1826 describes Skene and his wife, then his guests at Abbotsford, as "…excellent friends…" and Skene as "…distinguished for his attainments as a draughtsman…"
It is also likely that many of the sketches were taken during Scott and Skene's riding excursions to ruins, castles and sites of antiquarian importance. In his Series of Sketches Skene wrote that "many of the real localities of the Waverley Novels were connected with my collection of drawings, of which a part had been taken at his [Scott’s] suggestion, many during the the various excursions we had made together." The album certainly contains drawings from a fox chase the pair followed in around 1804, when they met Tod Willie (Guy Mannering's Tod Gabbie), referred to in Skene's Memories of Sir Walter Scott : "At Sir Walter’s request, I made a drawing of this scene.." The Memories also refer to Smailholm and Skene's visit with Sir Walter Scott, when Scott realised it would be his last visit to his grandfather's former home, due to failing health. Two drawings of Smailholm Tower in the album can be correlated with this trip, Skene writing that Scott "made me take drawings of the scene from different points."
Of their country rides, Skene wrote:
The beauty of the scenery gave full employment to my pencil, with the free and frequent exercise of which he [Scott] never seemed to feel impatient, for he was ready and willing at all times to alight where any scene attracted our notice...
From examining Skene's Memories, these and several other drawings in the album can be accurately traced to Scott's and Skene's excursions together. A letter written by Scott to Skene, dated Easter Monday 1830, also refers to Skene's sketches of Fast Castle, found in the album:
I am glad you have taken of Fast Castle. If I could get to Lord Napier's he would let me have some curious matter for illustration...
The album also contains at least 15 sketches made by Skene on his tour to Dumfries and Galloway in early July 1829 as preparation for his Series of Sketches. Entries in Scott’s Journal and in his letters to Skene, evidence their close collaboration in selecting the subjects to be sketched. Skene and Scott dined together at least twice the week before the trip, Scott writing on 22 June 1829 that "Skene has engaged himself in drawing illustrations to be etched by himself for Waverley". Scott then joined Skene’s family for dinner on 9 July immediately upon Skene’s return, Skene having been sketching Torr’s Cave in Kirkcudbright, 100 miles away, on 6 July.
In 1831, JMW Turner, described by Scott as "the first draughtsman of the period’" was expressing reluctance to travel to Scotland to illustrate a new edition of Scott’s Poetical Works. Scott’s proposed solution was to send Skene’s sketches to Turner for working up into finished water-colours. Scott wrote in his Journal that Turner "could derive his subjects from good accurate drawings so with Skene’s assistance we can equip him." In fact, Turner was persuaded to journey to Scotland and Skene’s services and collection of sketches were not required. Skene had previously worked with Turner when, in 1824, he had provided the sketch of the Bell Rock Lighthouse used by Turner to paint the lighthouse for the frontispiece of Robert Stevenson’s account of its construction.
Skene in his introduction to Series of Sketches made clear that he was content that his collection of drawings with "subjects applicable to the whole series of Novels" was available for future use "…or if not, they shall be permitted to continue their repose in obscurity and undisturbed, having already, as private reminiscences, answered all the ends originally intended in collecting them."
Although some sketches in the album appear to have been utilised after 1831, the vast majority have continued their repose, undisturbed for nearly 200 years. The existence of the album itself it little known and it does not seem to have featured in any exhibitions or research papers relating to Scott or Skene to date. A wealth of research could yet be conducted into the links between Skene's drawings and the illustrations for Scott's works, alongside comparisons with Skene's Memories and Scott's letters, tying the album into the pair's friendship. It is surely a remarkable collection of illustrations which capture the sights and experiences encountered by one of Scotland's greatest and most influential writers, and his close friend.
Sold for £42,500
(Inclusive of Buyer's Premium)
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Auction: Rare Books, Manuscripts, Maps & Photographs, 24th Feb, 2021
In-person viewing is unavailable. Please contact us for further information, photographs or detailed condition reports regarding any of the items in the sale.
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1. THE PURCHASE PRICE
For each Lot purchased a Buyer’s Premium of 26% of the Hammer Price of each Lot up to and including £20,000, plus 25% from £20,001 up to and including £500,000, plus 20% from £500,001 thereafter. VAT at the appropriate rate is charged on the Buyer’s Premium. No VAT is payable on the Hammer Price or premium for printed books or unframed maps bought at auction.
Live online bidding may be subject to an additional premium (level dependent on the live bidding service provider chosen). This additional premium is subject to VAT at the appropriate rate as above.
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(a) Lots affixed with (†): Value Added Tax on the Hammer Price and Buyer’s Premium is imposed by law on all items affixed with a dagger (†). This imposition of VAT maybe because the Seller is registered for VAT within the UK and is not operating under a Margin Scheme.
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3. ARTIST’S RESALE ROYALTY (DROIT DE SUITE)
This symbol § indicates works which may be subject to the Droit de Suite or Artist’s Resale Right, which took effect in the United Kingdom on 14th February 2006. We are required to collect a royalty payment for all qualifying works of art. Under new legislation which came into effect on 1st January 2012 this applies to living artists and artists who have died in the last 70 years. This royalty will be charged to the Buyer on the Hammer Price and in addition to the Buyer’s Premium. It will not apply to works where the Hammer Price is less than €1,000 (euros). The charge for works of art sold at and above €1,000 (euros) and below €50,000 (euros) is 4%. For items selling above €50,000 (euros), charges are calculated on a sliding scale. All royalty charges are paid to the Design and Artists Copyright Society (‘DACS’) and no handling costs or additional fees are retained by the Auctioneer. Resale royalties are not subject to VAT. Please note that the royalty payment is calculated on the rate of exchange at the European Central Bank on the date of the sale. More information on Droit de Suite is available at www.dacs.org.uk.
1. SELLER’S WARRANTIES
For each Lot, the Seller gives a warranty that the Seller;
(a) Is the owner of the Lot or a joint owner of the Lot acting with the permission of the other co-owners, or if the Sellers is not the owner of or a joint owner of the Lot, has the permission of the owner to sell the Lot, or the right to do so in law, and;
(b) Had the right to transfer ownership of the Lot to the Buyer without any restrictions or claims by anyone else.
If either other above warranties are incorrect, the Seller shall not have to pay more than the Purchase Price (as defined in the glossary) paid by You to us. The Seller will not be responsible to You for any reason for loss of profits or business, expected savings, loss of opportunity or interest, costs, damages, other damages or expense. The Seller gives no warranty in relation to any Lot other than as set out above and, as far as the Seller is allowed by law, all warranties from the Seller to You, and all obligations upon the Seller which may be added to this agreement by law, are excluded.
2. AUTHENTICITY GUARANTEE
We guarantee that the authorship, period, or origin (collectively, “Authorship”) of each Lot in this Catalogue is as stated in the BOLD or CAPITALISED type heading in the Catalogue description of the Lot, as amended by oral or written saleroom notes or announcements. We make no warranties whatsoever, whether express or implied, with respect to any material in the Catalogue other than that appearing in the Bold or Capitalised heading and subject to the exclusions below.
In the event we, in our reasonable opinion, deem that the conditions of the authenticity guarantee have been satisfied, it shall refund to the original purchaser of the Lot the Hammer Price and applicable Buyer’s Premium paid for the Lot by the original purchaser.
This Guarantee does not apply if:
(a) The Catalogue description was in accordance with the opinion(s) of generally accepted scholar(s) and expert(s) at the date of the sale, or the Catalogue description indicated that there was a conflict of such opinions; or
(b) the only method of establishing that the Authorship was not as described in the Bold or Capitalised heading at the date of the sale would have been by means or processes not then generally available or accepted; unreasonably expensive or impractical to use; or likely (in our reasonable opinion) to have caused damage to the Lot or likely to have caused loss of value to the Lot; or
(c) There has been no material loss in value of the Lot from its value had it been in accordance with its description in the Bold or Capitalised type heading.
This Guarantee is provided for a period of one year from the date of the relevant auction, is solely for the benefit of the original purchaser of the Lot at the auction and may not be transferred to any third party. To be able to claim under this Authenticity Guarantee, the original purchaser of the Lot must:
(a) notify us in writing within one month of receiving any information that causes the original purchaser of record to dispute the accuracy of the Bold or Capitalised type heading, specifying the Lot number, date of the auction at which it was purchased and the reasons for such dispute; and
(b) return the Lot to our registered office in the same condition as at the date of sale to the original purchaser of record and be able to transfer good title to the Lot, free from any third party claims arising after the date of such sale.
We have discretion to waive any of the above requirements. We may require the original purchaser of the Lot to obtain, at the original purchaser of Lot’s cost, the reports of two independent and recognised experts in the field. The reports must be mutually acceptable to us and the original purchaser of the Lot. We shall not be bound by any reports produced by the original purchaser of the Lot, and Reserves the right to seek additional expert advice at its own expense. It is specifically understood and agreed that the rescission of a sale and the refund of the original Purchase Price paid (the successful Hammer Price, plus the Buyer’s Premium) is exclusive and in lieu of any other remedy which might otherwise be available as a matter of law. Lyon & Turnbull and the Seller shall not be liable for any incidental or consequential damages incurred or claimed, including without limitation, loss of profits or interest.
3. YOUR WARRANTIES
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(ii) The arrangements between You and the ultimate Buyer(s) in relation to the Lot or otherwise do not, in whole or in part, facilitate tax crimes, and;
(iii) You do not know, and have no reason to suspect that the funds used for settlement are connected with the proceeds of any criminal activity, including tax evasion, or that the ultimate Buyer(s) are under investigation or have been charged with or convicted of money-laundering, terrorist activities, or other crimes.
1. MAKING PAYMENT
(a) Within 7 days of a Lot being sold You will pay to us the Total Amount Due in cash or by such other method as is agreed by us. We accept cash, bank transfer (details on request), debit cards and Visa or MasterCard credit cards. Please note that we do not accept cash payments over £5,000 per Buyer per year.
(b) Any payments by You to us can be applied by us towards any sums owing by You to us howsoever incurred and without agreement by You or Your agent, whether express or implied.
(c) We will only accept payment from the registered Bidder. Once issued, we cannot change the Buyer’s name on an invoice or re-issue the invoice in a different name.
(d) The ownership of any Lots purchased shall not pass to You until You have made payment in full to us of the Total Amount Due. The risk in and the responsibility for the Lot will transfer to You from whichever is the earlier of the following:
(i) When You collect the Lot; or
(ii) At the end of the 30th day following the date of the auction, or, if earlier, the date the Lot is taken into care by a third party unless we have agreed otherwise with You in writing.
(e) You shall at Your own risk and expense take away any Lots that You have purchased and paid for not later than 7 working days following the day of the auction or upon the clearance of any cheque used for payment whichever is later. We can provide You with a list of shippers. However, we will not be responsible for the acts or omissions of carriers or packers whether or not recommended by us.
(f) No purchase can be claimed or removed until it has been paid for.
(g) It is the Buyer’s responsibility to ascertain collection procedures, particularly if the sale is not being held at our main sale room and the potential storage charges for Lots not collected by the appropriate time.
(h) If you agree to our pack and send service (if applicable) payment of shipping fees must be made prior to us posting. Any shipping fee will be inclusive of VAT.
2. IN THE EVENT OF NON-PAYMENT
If any Lot is not paid for in full and taken away in accordance with these Conditions or if there is any other breach of these Conditions, we, as agent for the Sellers and on their behalf, shall at our absolute discretion and without prejudice to any other rights we may have, be entitled to exercise one or more of the following rights and remedies:
(a) To proceed against You for damages for breach of contract;
(b) To rescind the contract for sale of that Lot and/or any other Lots sold by us to You;
(c) To resell the Lot(s) (by auction or private treaty) in which case You shall be responsible for any resulting deficiency in the Total Amount Due (after crediting any part payment and adding any resale costs).
(d) To remove, store and insure the Lot in the case of storage, either at our premises or elsewhere and to recover from You all costs incurred in respect thereof;
(e) To charge interest at a rate of 5% a year above the Bank of Scotland base rate from time to time on all sums outstanding for more than 7 working days after the sale;
(f) To retain that or any other Lot sold to You until You pay the Total Amount Due;
(g) To reject or ignore bids from You or Your agent at future auctions or to impose conditions before any such bids shall be accepted;
(h) To apply any proceeds of sale of other Lots due or which become due to You towards the settlement of the Total Amount Due by You and to exercise a lien over any of Your property in our possession for any purpose until the debt due is satisfied. You will be deemed to have granted such security to us and we may retain such property as collateral security for Your obligations to us; we may decide to sell Your property in any way we think appropriate. We will use the proceeds of the sale against any amounts You owe us and we will pay any amount left from that sale to You. If there is a shortfall, You must pay us the balance; and
(i) Take any other action we see necessary or appropriate.
G. COLLECTION & STORAGE
(1) It is the Buyer’s responsibility to ascertain collection procedures, particularly if the sale is not being held at our main sale room and the potential storage charges for Lots not collected by the appropriate time. Information on collection is set out in the Catalogue and our Website
(2) Unless agreed otherwise, You must collect purchased Lots within seven days from the auction. Please note the Lots will only be released upon full payment being received.
(3) If You do not collect any Lot within seven days following the auction we can, at our discretion;
(i) Charge You storage costs at the rates set out on our Website.
(ii) Move the Lot to another location or an affiliate or third party and charge You transport and administration costs for doing so and You will be subject to the third party storage terms and pay for their fees and costs.
(iii) Sell the Lot in any way we think reasonable.
H. TRANSPORT & SHIPPING
1. TRANSPORT AND SHIPPING
(a) We will include transport and shipping information with each invoice sent to You as well as displayed on our Website. You must make all transport and shipping arrangements.
(b) We offer a limited pack and send service using Royal Mail on small jewellery items. When items leave our premises and are in transit via postal service We are not responsible for any damage or loss incurred. We are also not responsible for making any claim regarding loss or damage to items. A tracking reference number will be issued which can be used to raise a claim with the relevant shipping provider.
(c) We offer a pre-sale quoted price using a third party - Mailboxes etc. Should you select this shipping option you agree to share your personal details with this third party. Mailboxes etc will contact you to confirm details and whether you wish to add insurance in addition.
2. EXPORT OF GOODS
Buyers intending to export goods should ascertain;
(a) Whether an export licence is required; and
(b) Whether there is any specific prohibition on importing goods of that character, e.g. items that may contain prohibited materials such as ivory or rhino horn. It is the Buyer’s sole responsibility to obtain any relevant export or import licence. The denial of any licence or any delay in obtaining licences shall neither justify the recession of any sale not any delay in making full payment for the Lot.
3. CITES: ENDANGERED PLANTS AND ANIMALS LEGISLATION
Please be aware that all Lots marked with the symbol Y may be subject to CITES regulations when exporting these items outside Great Britain. These regulations may be found at http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/imports-exports/cites
We accept no liability for any Lots which may be subject to CITES but have not be identified as such.
I. OUR LIABILITY TO YOU
(a) We give no warranty in relation to any statement made, or information give, by us, our representatives or employees about any Lot other than as set out in the authenticity warranty and as far as we are allowed by law, all warranties and other terms which may be added to this agreement by law are exclude. The Seller’s warranties contained in paragraph E.1 are their own and we do not have a liability in relation to those warranties.
(b) (i) We are not responsible to You for any reason whether for breaking this agreement or any other matter relating to Your purchase of, or bid for, any Lot other than in the event of fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation by us other than as expressly set out in these conditions of sale; or
(ii) We do not give any representation, warranty or guarantee or assume any liability for a kind in respect of any Lot with regard to merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, description, size, quality, condition, attribution, authenticity, rarity, importance, medium, provenance, exhibition history, literature or historical relevance, except as required by local law, any warranty of any kind is excluded by this paragraph.
(c) in particular, please be aware that our written and telephone bidding services, Lyon & Turnbull Live, Condition Reports, currency converter and saleroom video screens are free services and we are not responsible for any error (human or otherwise) omission or breakdown in these services.
(d) We have no responsibility to any person other than a Buyer in connection with the purchase of any Lot
(e) If in spite of the terms of this paragraph we are found to be liable to You for any reason, we shall not have to pay more than the Purchase Price paid by You to us. We will not be responsible for any reason for loss of profits, business, loss of opportunity or value, expected savings or interest, costs damages or expenses.
J. OTHER TERMS
1. OUR ABILITY TO CANCEL
In addition to the other rights of cancellation contained in this agreement, we can cancel the sale of a Lot if;
(i) Any of our warranties are not correct, as set out in paragraph E3,
(ii) We reasonably believe that completing the transaction is or may be unlawful; or
(iii) We reasonably believe that the sale places us or the Seller under any liability to anyone else or may damage our reputation.
We may videotape and record proceedings at any auction. We will keep any personal information confidential, except to the extent disclosure is required by law if You do not wish to be videotaped, You may make arrangements to bit by telephone or a written bid or bid on Lyon & Turnbull Live instead. Unless we agree otherwise in writing, You may not videotape or record proceedings at any auction.
We own the copyright in respect of all images, illustrations and written material produced by or for us relating to a Lot. (Including Catalogue entries unless otherwise noted in the Catalogue) You cannot use them without our prior written permission. We do not offer any guarantee that You will gain any copyright or other reproductions to the Lot.
4. ENFORCING THIS AGREEMENT
If a court finds that any part of this agreement is not valid or is illegal or impossible to enforce, that part of the agreement will be treated as deleted and the rest of this agreement will remain in force.
5. TRANSFERRING YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
You may not grant a security over or transfer Your rights of responsibilities under these terms on the contract of sale with the Buyer unless we have given our written permission. This agreement will be binding on Your successors or estate and anyone who takes over Your rights and responsibilities.
6. REPORTING ON WWW.LYONANDTURNBULL.COM
Details of all Lots sold by us, including Catalogue descriptions and prices, may be reported on www.lyonandturnbull.com. Sales totals are Hammer Price plus Buyer’s Premium and do not reflect any additional fees that may have been incurred. We regret we cannot agree to requests to remove these details from our Website.
7. SALE BY PRIVATE TREATY
(a) The same Conditions of Sale (Buyers) shall apply to sales by private treaty.
(b) Private treaty sales made under these Conditions are deemed to be sales by auction and subject to our agreed charges for Sellers and Buyers.
(c) We undertake to inform the Seller of any offers it receives in relation to an item prior to any Proposed Sale, excluding the normal method of commission bids.
(d) For the purposes of a private treaty sale, if a Lot is sold in any other currency than Sterling, the exchange rate is to be taken on the date of sale.
8. THIRD PARTY LIABILITY
All members of the public on our premises are there at their own risk and must note the lay-out of the premises, safety and security arrangements. Accordingly, neither the Auctioneer nor our employees or agents shall incur liability for death or personal injury or similarly for the safety of the property of persons visiting prior to, during or after a sale.
9. DATA PROTECTION
10. FORCE MAJEURE
We shall be under no liability if they shall be unable to carry out any provision of the Contract of Sale for any reason beyond their control including (without limiting the foregoing) an act of God, legislation, war, fire, flood, drought, failure of power supply, lock-out, strike or other action taken by employees in contemplation or furtherance of a dispute or owing to any inability to procure materials required for the performance of the contract.
11. LAW AND JURISDICTION
(a) Governing Law: These Conditions of Sale and all aspects of all matters, transactions or disputes to which they relate or apply shall be governed by, and interpreted in accordance with, Scots law
(b) Jurisdiction: The Buyer agrees that the Courts of Scotland are to have exclusive jurisdiction to settle all disputes arising in connection with all aspects of all matters or transactions to which these Conditions of Sale relate or apply.
K. DEFINITIONS & GLOSSARY
The following words and phrases used have (unless the context otherwise requires) the meaning to given to them below. The go Glossary is to assist You to understand words and phrases which have a specific legal meaning which You may not be familiar with.
“Auctioneer” Lyon & Turnbull Ltd (Registered in Scotland No: 191166 | Registered address: 33 Broughton Place, Edinburgh, EH1 3RR) or it’s authorised representative conducting the sale, as appropriate;
“Bidder” a person who has completed a Bidding Form
“Bidding Form” our Bidding Registration Form our Absentee Bidding Form or our Telephone Bidding Form.
“Buyer” the person to whom a Lot is knocked down by the Auctioneer. The Buyer is also referred to by the words “You” and “Your”
“Buyer’s Premium” the sum calculated on the Hammer Price at the rates stated in Catalogue.
“Catalogue” the Catalogue relating to the relevant Sale, including any representation on our Website
“Condition Report” the report on the physical condition of a Lot provided to a Bidder or potential Bidder by us on behalf of the Seller.
“Estimate” a statement of our opinion of the range within the hammer is likely to fall.
“Hammer Price” the level of bidding reached (at or above any Reserve) when the Auctioneer brings down the hammer;
“High Cumulative Value of Lot” several Lots with a total lower Estimate value of £30,000 or above;
“High Value Lot” a Lot with a lower Estimate of £30,000 or above;
“Lot” each Item offered for sale by Lyon & Turnbull;
“Purchase Price” is the aggregate of Hammer Price and any applicable Buyer’s Premium, VAT on the Hammer Price (where applicable), VAT on the Buyer’s Premium and any other applicable expenses;
“Reserve” the lowest price below which an item cannot be sold whether at auction or by private treaty;
“Sale” the auction sale at which a Lot is to be offered for sale by us.
“Seller” the person who offers the Lot for Sale. We act as agent for the Seller.
“Total Amount Due” the Hammer Price in respect of the Lot sold together with any premium, Value Added Tax or other taxes chargeable and any additional charges payable by a defaulting Buyer under these Conditions;
“VAT” value added tax at the prevailing rate at the date of the sale in the United Kingdom.
“Website” Lyon & Turnbull’s Website at www.lyonandturnbull.com
The following have specific legal meaning which You may not be familiar with. The following glossary is intended to give You an understanding of those expressions but is not intended to restrict their legal meanings:
“Artist’s Resale Right” the right of the creator of a work of art to receive a payment on Sales of that work subsequent to
“Knocked Down” when a Lot is sold to a Bidder, indicated by the fall of the hammer at the Sale.
“Lien” a right for the person who has possession of the Lot to retain possession of it.
“Risk” the possibility that a Lot may be lost, damaged, destroyed, stolen, or deteriorate in condition or value.
“Title” the legal and equitable right to the ownership of a Lot.
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