Jewels Through the Ages | The Age of Victoria
The Victorian period heralded in an age of enormous variety in jewellery design and fashion, the boom of the industrial revolution changed approaches not only to the manufacture of jewellery, but the wealth it created also meant that more people than ever were able to afford to amass a collection, even if it was just small.
The mass production of a particular piece or design, in which a single sheet of gold could be pressed out on a particular mould multiple times, meant that this is really the first time in jewellery where a prolific number of examples last to this day. The discovery of new diamond deposits in South Africa in 1867 made diamonds more readily available at prices that were more affordable. Advances in railways meant that travel, not just throughout the UK but also across the Continent, was faster and less arduous, opening consumers up to a new wealth of experience, and popularising new fashions.
A late Victorian diamond set Maltese cross form brooch/pendant
set throughout with graduated old mine and old European cut diamonds
Sold for £4,000 (buyer's premium included)
Over the course of the first half of the century duties were gradually relaxed on newspapers, meaning there was a huge growth in circulation, which increased the public’s appetite for contemporary information; this hunger allowed trends to develop as individuals began to look to figures like the Queen for fashion. The 19th century, with some help from Beau Brummell, ushered in a new age for men’s fashion - far more restrained and less ornate in which men wore almost no jewellery. Women now became the sole canvas on which a man could display his wealth through jewels.
A Victorian floral diamond set brooch
modelled as a flower in bloom, set throughout with old round, rose and eight cut diamonds,
Sold for £1,375 (buyer's premium included)
Souvenirs from the Grand Tour
The defeat of Napoleon in 1814 mean than travel throughout Europe became much easier, and the discerning English tourists relished the opportunity to once again travel throughout France, Switzerland and Italy. Along the way they would often pick up souvenirs of their travels, a renewed interest in the classical empires started by Napoleon for political reasons, now became even more popular for travellers in Italy, jewellers in cities such as Rome and Naples quickly realised there was a market for pieces in the classical Roman, Greek or Etruscan styles. The leading producers of these pieces even became tourist destinations in themselves, Roman jeweller Castellani in particular. They looked to recent archaeological discoveries and often used archaeological forms as inspiration, woven gold work and semi-previous gem materials such as coral and hardstones were used, rarely diamonds, this archaeological style was popular well into the second half of the century. Switzerland were also quick to capitalise on this steady stream of wealthy tourists, and became well known for its enamelled pieces of well-known views or figures in regional costume.
An impressive 19th century carved coral and gold mounted necklace and pendant earrings
the broad fine woven gold neck band with similar woven drapes forming tiered compartments of graduated fringes framing carved coral, acorns, palmettes, and Bacchanalian masks
Sold for £13,750 (buyer's premium included)
During the beginning of the 18th century the fashion for large perures had somewhat waned in France, but the demand for high quality elaborate pieces was still very much alive throughout wider Europe. The rise of the Romantic movement coincided with the development of techniques and abilities which craftsmen were able to put to use in designing very naturalistic representations of floral sprigs or bouquets; owing to the continued fashion for botany this was a style which lasted well into the latter years of the century. Often, to give an even more convincing appearance, the flower heads would be set en tramblant, on a small spring, allowing them to tremble whenever the wearer moved. The Victorians were great lovers of hidden meaning in imagery, and often certain flowers were representations of popular ideals; the forget-me-not signified true love, and the lily-of-the-valley represented happiness, while ivy might represent friendship and fidelity. Prince Albert was said to often gift Queen Victorian jewellery with these hidden meanings.
A cased Victorian bracelet
decorated with an exotic bird on a branch, the other graduated panels pierced and chased with various exotic plants
Sold for £20,000 (buyer's premium included
Little was known of Japanese art since they closed their ports in 1624, however when they reopened them again in the 1850s, a whole new world of art and design was made available to Europe, particularly after the London Exhibition of 1862. Distinct and brightly coloured enamel cloisonné work was taken up by jewellers such as Lucien Falize, who used traditional Japanese imagery in his pieces to capitalise on this new fascination. Japan has very little, if any, tradition in jewellery making but they did have a lot of very talented metalworkers, used to working on a small scale for other decorative objects, and particularly after 1876 when the wearing of Samurai sword was banned, craftsmen who had previous decorated the very elaborate sword fittings, turned to making jewellery for export. Using complex and contrasting alloys their mixed metalwork was a completely new aesthetic to the European market.
A collection of Japanese Komai jewellery
including two necklaces, two bracelets and a pair of earrings
Sold for £375 (buyer's premium included)
The Victorians weren’t without their sense of the whimsical either, it was during this period that the ‘bug’ brooch was popularised, starting with the humble house fly and moving on to other insects these brooches were popular novelties which again grew out of the naturalism movement. This notion of novelty didn’t stop with insects, birds perched on their nests with pearl eggs or enamelled pheasants were but a few examples of other animals, but records of women wearing pendant earrings modelled as steam trains show that even the industrial advances of the day couldn’t be overlooked as possible inspiration.
A diamond set novelty brooch
modelled as a moth set throughout with small round cut diamonds
Sold for £600 (buyer's premium included)
Queen Victoria’s love affair with Balmoral, along with the continued enthusiasm for Romanticism sparked a demand for Scottish jewellery; luckenbooth brooches, kilt pins, watch chains, bracelet and brooches all set with Aberdeen Granite, Scottish Agates and Cairngorms were very popular. So much so that as demand grew, as is often the case production had to be outsourced, by the late 1860s many of the cairngorms were replaced with Brazilian citrines and the pieces themselves were manufactured in Birmingham, so it is always worth checking the history of each piece as it may not always be what it seems.
A Victorian gold mounted Scottish pebble brooch
unmarked, of circular outline with detailed engraved border of Celtic and interlaced designs, set between panels with agates and hardstone
Sold for £720 (buyer's premium included)
The Victorian’s perfected the idea of multi-functional jewellery; for example, a tiara might be made so as to detach the diamond motif from the frame so that it could be worn as a necklace or brooches at less formal occasions; a pair of bracelets may be joined together to make a necklace. Pendants were often removable from their necklaces, so that they could be worn as brooches or on alternative chains. The new middle classes emerging from the industrial revolution may not have been able to make multiple purchases of expensive jewellery, so they wanted to get the most of the ones they did buy. A typical example of this is the ‘star’ tiara, a popular motif, the stars could be detached from the mounts, and worn as brooches; this has meant that over the years the as pieces were handed down through the generations they were split up amongst siblings, so while we still regularly see the brooches, the complete tiara is more unusual.
A late 19th century diamond set tiara
formed of a single band of graduated old round cut diamonds below three graduated detachable diamond set stars,
each star with brooch fittings and set throughout with graduated round cut diamonds,
Sold for £27,500 (buyer's premium included)
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